Well integrity is a system of protocols used in the petroleum industry to protect the environment from uncontrolled discharge of sedimentary fluids. Due to the inherent environmental dangers associated with petroleum drilling, many governments have enacted strict legislation regarding oil well integrity, drilling, and exploration. To eliminate risks, oil drilling companies hire well integrity engineers whose sole responsibility is to design systems that protect the environment during the petroleum harvest.
While movies and television portray exploratory oil drilling as a process that culminates in a violent eruption of oil from a well, the truth of the matter is that, when this actually occurs, it is a disaster. This kind of explosive eruption of oil contaminates the area around the well and is commonly known as an oil spill. The results of such an environmental disaster can cost oil companies millions of dollars in clean up efforts.
The management of oil well drilling involves a complex system of protocols, testing, logs, and equipment to circumvent such disasters. The tools used in the process include down hole meters, cameras, and other testing equipment. Well integrity engineers use the data gathered by these instruments to determine what the well is doing beneath the surface and implement plans to prevent accidental discharge of oil and other sedimentary fluids.
One of the primary tools used in the safety management of oil wells is the computer. With so many precise calculations to make and the quantity of data that must be processed, computer systems loaded with appropriate software are essential to managing oil wells. This specialized software reads the data gathered by down hole calipers, sounding meters, and other tools, using the measurements to display the possible scenarios that could result from variations.
The actual down hole measuring instruments used for integrity and safety testing of oil wells include multi finger calipers, electromagnetic thickness meters, ultrasonic thickness meters, and down hole camera equipment. Multi finger calipers are used to make precise measurements of the bore hole. Electromagnetic and ultrasonic thickness meters are used to measure the wall thickness of the pipelines inserted into the well to detect possible weak spots that could burst under pressure. Video camera equipment is also used so that well integrity engineers can have a visual observation of the conditions noted in the data received from other instruments.
By carefully examining the data and visual reports offered by down hole instruments, well integrity engineers are able to assess potential problems. When these at risk areas are discovered, protocols can be initiated to circumvent disaster or delay its onset until proper repairs can be made. When all of these elements work together, the safety and integrity of the oil well can be effectively maintained.