Heat treated pallets are a type of wood pallet used to transport goods. They are specially treated to prevent insects or fungi from being transported by the wood pallet from one location to another. A pallet is a frame constructed of wood that has slats across the top. The wooden slats are spaced with approximately one inch (2.5 cm) between each slat so the weight of the goods placed on top of the pallet can be evenly distributed and prevent the slats from bowing.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) governs the size of wooden shipping pallets and there are six globally accepted sizes. Most shipping companies require pallets to conform to these ISO sizes so they can fit into trucks and ocean containers without wasting too much space. Standard pallet configurations also work best with forklifts since most forklifts were designed to accommodate standard pallets.
Traditionally, a wooden pallet is made of two by four lumber and may or may not be treated. In 2002, members of the United Nations signed a treaty during the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) that required wood packaging such as export pallets to be heat treated or fumigated. The purpose of heat treated pallets is to prevent insect or fungi infestations from being transmitted via wood packing materials since shipping pallets often are sent from country to country. If heat treated pallets are not used, the shipper may be subject to fines and its product seized for destruction.
Pallets treated by heat or fumigation are stamped with a certification which reduces the chance the shipment will be delayed in customs. Heat treated pallets must be certified using ISPM 15 heat treating requirements. These requirements, which were developed as a result of the IPPC treaty, provide guidelines on how companies make heat treated pallets. Though this requirement strictly governs only international shipments, many companies have moved to only heat treated pallets for consistency.
To create a heat treated pallet, the wood must be heated to at least 132.8 degrees Fahrenheit or 56 degrees Celsius. Before heating, wood used in pallets must also be debarked so only the core wood is used to make the pallet. The heat process removes some of the moisture from the wood, which also makes it more weather-resistant and less likely to rot. Once the drying process is complete, a seal bearing the ISPM mark along with the originating country is imprinted onto the pallet.